ADA Systematic Review--Technical Report of Scoping Review

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Americans with Disabilities National Network

Knowledge Translation Center

Systematic Review Project

Year 1: Scoping Review of the ADA

 

TECHNICAL REPORT

 

Authors:

Department of Disability & Human Development

University of Illinois at Chicago

Sarah Parker Harris, Principal Investigator

Robert Gould, Project Director

Glenn Fujiura, Co-Investigator

Robin Jones, Co-Investigator

Patrick Ojok, Research Assistant

Avery Olmstead, Academic Librarian

 

February 15, 2013

 

Funded by NIDRR Grant # H133A11014

 

Table of Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Overview

Highlights of Results

Dissemination

2. BACKGROUND

3. METHODOLOGY

3.1      Overview

3.2      Identification of databases and sources for literature

3.3      Locating, Screening & Selection of Records

3.4      Extraction, Analysis & Synthesis of Data

Initial extraction

Mixed categorical coding

Reliability Checking

Analysis and Synthesis

3.5       Limitations of the Study

4. RESULTS

4.1      Record Type

4.2       Stakeholder Group

4.3       Topics

4.4       Research Methods

5. SUMMARY & NEXT STEPS

5.1       Key Findings

5.2       Stakeholder Feedback

5.3      Dissemination Activities

REFERENCES

APPENDICIES

Appendix I: Expert Panel Members

Appendix II: Academic Databases

Appendix III: Academic Journals

Appendix IV: Organizations and organizational websites searched for grey literature

Appendix V: Codes

Appendix VI: Topic Descriptions

 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Overview

More than 20 years after its implementation, there are still conflicting arguments and fragmented research findings about the ADA’s effectiveness across the various stakeholder groups it impacts. To address this fragmentation in research the University of Illinois at Chicago is conducting a five-year multi-stage systematic review of the ADA as part of the NIDRR funded National ADA Knowledge Translation Center based at the University of Washington. The project includes a scoping review, a rapid evidence review, and systematic reviews. This report provides a summary of the progress of the first year of the project and the findings of the scoping review.

The primary purpose of the scoping review has been to map the landscape of ADA research by examining the extent, range and nature of research evidence while consulting with key ADA stakeholders in the implementation of the policy. The first stage has entailed:

  • Searching for “ADA” and the appropriate truncation in academic databases.
  • Locating the academic research and grey literature on the ADA and extracting the key information from only the abstracts of research materials.
  • Inputting key data points from the abstracts of research materials to be used to formulate research questions that will guide the future rapid evidence and systematic reviews. 
  • Generating a descriptive overview of the subgroups studied, topics covered, research questions asked in the research evidence, and direction of findings.

Highlights of Results

The initial review of the scoping review yielded some surprising results and also confirmed some previous notions from scholars of ADA research. The research evidence that was tracked across research records included: the different stakeholder groups and specific stakeholders, topic and subtopics, research methods, and primary factors that were studied in each study. Some of the key findings include:

  • The majority of research (67%) comes from academic journals and the remainder comes from conference proceedings, books, dissertations and theses, and organizational reports.
  • A range of different research methods were used in ADA research include quantitative, qualitative, mixed-methods, and theoretical/policy analysis techniques. About half of all the research on the ADA is quantitative, and a substantial portion of mixed-methods research also includes quantitative analysis.
  • The most common issues studied across research included attitudes and knowledge about people with disabilities and the ADA; barriers and facilitators to implementing the policy; compliance rates; and costs associated with the Act.
  • There is very little research across different stakeholder groups and the majority of research is either on people with disabilities or businesses/employers.  
  • The most common topic of the ADA research gathered is employment (48% of the research records) and the second most common is education (16%).
  • Critical access and accommodation issues (i.e. emergency preparedness (?) and voting) have virtually no research.

Dissemination

One of the primary goals of the systematic review project is to disseminate research findings nationally to a broad range of stakeholders to ensure its application in improving the implementation of the ADA. The two primary methods of achieving this goal are by creating plain language reports and publications, in addition to national presentations. To date we have:

  • Drafted two plain language summaries (defining what constitutes ADA evidence and an overview of the ADA systematic review project and methods).
  • Provided four presentations to different stakeholder groups (an expert panel of ADA stakeholders; local ADA Center’s advisory center; ADA Network’s Directors meeting; and the ADA Network National meeting).

Additional publications and presentations are planned based on the research conducted in year one of the project, which include: one plain language summary and an academic paper on the scoping review findings; academic paper on systematic review methodology; and presentations at two national academic conferences (Society for Disability Studies, the American Sociological Association), and a symposium on disability rights at the University of California-Berkeley.  

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1. INTRODUCTION

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is the cornerstone of US civil rights policy for people with disabilities, and the primary legislative tool for ensuring their full and equal treatment as citizens. The legislative intent of the ADA is to protect against discrimination while simultaneously fostering social inclusion across all domains of public life. While the law is the primary means of ensuring protection of rights, there has been much debate on its impact and effectiveness as a social policy. When the drafting of the Americans with Disabilities’ Act began in 1988, a wide body of research documenting the discrimination and inaccessibility across the country was developed to convince the government about the importance of a new federal policy. Since its inception into law in 1990, an even broader body of research has been developed to track the progress in addressing such inequalities. However, the research to date on its impact has often been duplicative, inconclusive, or conflicting. The state of ADA-related research is highly fragmented, comprising of a multitude of definitions, theories, topics, disability subgroups, stakeholder perspectives, multiple methods and outcomes. This represents a rich resource, but the volume of research on the ADA makes it hard for researchers, practitioners and policymakers to distill what is most useful for their information needs. More than 20 years after its implementation, there are still conflicting arguments and fragmented research findings about the ADA’s effectiveness across the various stakeholder groups it impacts. The National Council on Disability (2007) explains that the lack of ongoing systematic study and disagreements within existing research evidence has resulted in “significant knowledge gaps about the impact of the ADA.” The discordant state of research on the ADA continues to be a significant barrier to improving its implementation.

To address this fragmentation in research the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) is conducting a five-year systematic review of the ADA as part of the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) funded National ADA Knowledge Translation Center based at the University of Washington. The project was developed in response to a call by NIDRR to “increase the use of available ADA-related research findings to inform behavior, practices, or policies that improve equal access in society for individuals with disabilities.” UIC addresses this call through a multi-stage systematic review that includes: (1) a scoping review of how the ADA has been studied to map the literature landscape; (2) a rapid evidence review to refine priorities and analyze selected topics for preliminary assessment of the research; and (3) systematic reviews to synthesize research and answer specific key questions in the area.  We will use these reviews and syntheses to create a foundation of knowledge, inform the subsequent policy, research and information dissemination, and contribute to the overall capacity building efforts of the ADA Regional Centers.  Together, these reviews will identify a future plan for research that spans core ADA research topics, methodological approaches to ADA-related research and potential outcomes to inform policy and practice, and positively impact on ADA stakeholders.  To date, no systematic reviews have been conducted in this area. 

In order to increase the use of available ADA-related research findings to inform policies and practices that maximize the full inclusion in society for individuals with disabilities, and taking into account the heterogeneous nature of ADA research, a three stage approach to a systematic review is necessary. This report details the activities and findings from stage one (scoping review).

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2. BACKGROUND

A scoping review is a review that is often carried out in advance of a systematic review to develop an understanding of the research landscape by examining the extent, range and nature of research evidence (Grant & Booth, 2009).  This may include subgroups that have been studied, research questions asked, methods used, and direction of findings. Scoping studies tend to address broader topics than systematic reviews. Scoping reviews are particularly useful to investigate key research priorities and point the way to future research (Levac, Colquhoun, & O’Brien, 2010). Jesson, Matheson, and Lacey (2011) define the purpose of the scoping review:

A scoping review sets the scene for a future research agenda…The review documents what is already known, and then, using a critical analysis of the gaps in knowledge, it helps to refine the research questions, concepts and theories to point the way to future research” (p. 15).

In short the primary purpose of a scoping review is to provide a broad overview of the current research on a topic and to document key components of the research in order to identify specific gaps and key research needs based on the existing research evidence. While the primary purpose of a scoping review is to map the state of evidence in a given area, there is much debate about what constitutes evidence when it comes to research on the ADA. Additionally, as noted above, the fragmentation and volume of research on the ADA makes it hard to know what is currently useful. Sourcing records is more complex than in traditional systematic reviews.  A substantial source of evidence for key ADA decisions to date has been academic and technical research. Given the non-availability of many qualitative accounts, search strategies must augment electronic searchers with more traditional methods of reviewing including back-tracking of references and engaging with key experts in the field (Petticrew & Roberts, 2006)). ADA-related evidence can come from published and/or unpublished research from a variety of sources:

  • Published studies are found in academic databases, journal articles, books and book chapters, dissertations, background material used in court case decisions; as well as research conducted or commissioned by government departments, disability, technical, and other stakeholder agencies, ADA Regional Centers, research institutes, think tanks, and employer and business-related organizations.
  • Unpublished studies (‘grey literature’) are found in many of the above same sources, but especially in government agencies, non-government and technical organizations, dissertations, and research institutes. Because grey literature is unpublished, obtaining the research and reports requires the expertise and knowledge of key contacts and stakeholders working in the field.

Evidence-based practice in other domains (i.e. medicine) often relies on obtaining quantitative research and intervention studies conducted on narrow topics. However, the state of ADA research provides a much wider array of topics and fields to draw from. For example, studies may include qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods research that address a myriad of areas, including: social movements, rights and participation; legal and economic issues; socio-political discourse and cultural values; stakeholder perspectives and experiences; and issue/title-based topics such as employment, education, health and technology, etc. The heterogeneity in both method and content of ADA-related research provides a wide basis of what constitutes evidence.

With this in mind, the research team formed an ADA Expert Panel. Systematic review projects often rely on consultations from content experts to exhaustively locate materials that are seldom disseminated, confirm findings and assumptions about the overarching themes from categories of research, and validate key research findings (Petticrew & Roberts, 2005). The ADA Expert Panel consists of key ADA stakeholders, including representatives from the National Council on Disability, the Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund (DREDF), the National ADA Network, Mathematica Policy Research Group, the US Business Leadership Network, various Universities,  and other pertinent organizations (for a complete list of members refer to Appendix I) The research team has worked in collaboration with the ADA Expert Panel throughout the scoping review to decide what is evidence, what should be included as evidence, and what is important in the evidence. In subsequent reviews, the research team will continue to work with the Expert Panel to identify ADA knowledge gaps, shape future ADA research topics, and, through dissemination and knowledge translation, contribute to an improved understanding by ADA stakeholders of their rights and responsibilities under the ADA.

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3. METHODOLOGY

3.1    Overview 

From January to September 2012, the UIC research team worked on forming the Expert Panel committee; developed the research protocol, research questions, and inclusion criteria; and identified, screened and gathered relevant research on the ADA. Data extraction, analysis and synthesis were conducted during October to December 2012. The scoping review entails locating both published research materials from various online databases and also unpublished and hard-to-locate (grey) research literature through specific data base searching, interlibrary loan requests, and contacting various agencies and organizations. In addition to retrieving materials, the scoping review also requires cataloguing the literature in a database system to identify key components of each study.

The research team conducted an extensive scoping review of the literature that involved: 

  • Searching for “ADA” and the appropriate truncation in academic and other databases. Search terms of general scoping reviews are broad, and do not typically go beyond full text searches for the primary topic under investigation.
  • Locating the relevant research and grey literature on the ADA (referred herein as ‘records’), and extracting the key information (referred herein to as ‘data’) from only the abstracts of research materials.
  • Generating a descriptive analysis and synthesis of the data to map the landscape of how the ADA has been researched and studied.

The research questions guiding the scoping review were developed by the research team in conjunction with the ADA Expert Panel, with member-checking with disability consultants serving as key population informants (refer to Table 1). The questions were kept intentionally broad at this stage of the project in order to understand and assess what has been studied. Subsequent reviews will seek to answer more specific research questions.

Table 1: Scoping Review Research Questions

What English-language studies have been conducted and/or published from 1990 onwards that study the Americans with Disabilities Act?

  • What is the source of the information?  
  • What disability and stakeholder subgroups are represented in the literature?
  • What topics and titles are represented in the literature?
  • What methodologies and research designs are represented in the literature?

 

The inclusion criteria consists of citations to all records identified as empirically[1] examining the ADA by a literature search using the following parameters: (a) published or dated from 1990; (b) be written in English; (c) have been carried out in the United States; (d) relate to the ADA; and (e) be based on published studies reporting the gathering of primary or secondary data or the collating and synthesis of existing information to answer ADA-related research questions. Items that are not included in the initial scoping review are established facts about the ADA (i.e. court-case decisions, technical materials on compliance, general fact sheets), opinion pieces (i.e. by various stakeholders, lawyers or academics), and anecdotal evidence. The inclusion criteria is broad, as the topic of study is broad.

The following sub-sections contain a detailed description of the scoping review record and data collection process, involving: identification of records; location, screening and selection of records (limited to abstract); extraction, analysis and synthesis of data (limited to abstract/descriptive).

3.2    Identification of databases and sources for literature

The first step of the scoping review process was to identify key databases to access pertinent research records. The research team took multiple steps to ensure a broad expanse of research was investigated. We first consulted a checklist of key sources based on the suggestions of the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination,[2] a UK based research center that provides guidance to ensure academic rigor in the systematic review process. This checklist was used to compile an initial spreadsheet of databases. Further, an academic librarian consultant reviewed the list and added in additional databases that were believed to contain return relevant academic literature. A full listing of the databases searched is included in Appendix II. These databases include a wide range of academic journals that were potentially relevant to the research project. 321 different journals revealed relevant literature. Appendix III contains a listing of all of the journals that contained included research on the ADA.

In addition to a comprehensive list of academic database, multiple steps were necessary to locate the broad expanse of ADA research evidence. A comprehensive listing of relevant organizations that have potentially researched the ADA was compiled by the research team. This listing was expanded through general searching on Google for disability organizations with assistance from the academic librarian. The research team retrieved all relevant research records from the organizational websites. The research team conducted a thorough investigation of the organizations’ websites using appropriate search teams (i.e. “Americans with Disabilities Act;” “ADA”; or truncated search terms for websites that had database-like search capabilities and not general site searches such as American* Disab* Act).  If no resources were found via the websites, the organizations were called or emailed to verify the availability/unavailability of research regarding the ADA. This search method, however, did not yield any additional pertinent research evidence that had not already been retrieved from either academic databases or the previous grey literature searches. A full listing of the organizations that were searched is included in Appendix IV The listing will be reviewed by the Expert Panel at the next meeting (February) to ensure that all relevant organizations are included. This finalized list of organizations with possible ADA resources will be utilized in future systematic reviews to exhaustively search for research on specific top areas. Due to the nature of grey literature (not published by mainstream publishing clearinghouses, independently published records/reports from agencies, or fully unpublished), alternative search methods were also employed drawing on several different search strategies. These methods include utilizing the primary researchers’ knowledge and familiarity with the research evidence; communicating with the network of researchers involved with ADA research; cross-checking bibliographies; and collaborating with the Expert Panel to locate hard-to-reach-studies and confirm saturation. Additionally, we used an expansive database system of grey literature, OCLC Worldcat,[3] to examine different library holdings of unpublished and hard to reach materials. One advantage of searching through this system database is that searching the database permitted the use of more traditional systematic review search methods (i.e. tracking search results, records, and search terms). However, there is greater difficulty in identifying and confirming the relevance of the studies retrieved from the database as there is limited information available. Records often include a title and/or brief description rather than a full abstract (necessary for a scoping review), and may need to be located/examined in print before they can be confirmed as  research. Furthermore, references to research studies are sometimes incomplete or referred to in multiple data repositories (i.e. organizational websites and/or grey literature search databases).

At this time, other grey literature databases besides Worldcat have been excluded from the initial scoping review per the advice of the research librarian, Most (if not all) pertinent research will be found in either published articles, reports, or unpublished dissertations that are included in this database. For example, Worldcat includes dissertations and theses from the same institutions as other grey literature clearinghouses, such as the OpenDoar system and others which are often based on Google search platforms. However, once specific systematic review questions are identified and we can introduce additional and more specific search terms, it is possible that these grey literature database may return previously unfound research records regarding the ADA. For the scoping review process, it would not be viable to go through the full records of the various Google based platforms.

3.3    Locating, Screening & Selection of Records

The next step of the scoping review process involved locating, screening and selecting records based on the inclusion criteria. The initial search criteria yielded 34,599 records. This included:

  • 26,371 records from Academic databases
  • 6,975 records from the Worldcat library of grey literature items
  • 1,253 records provided from the National Rehabilitation Information Center (NARIC[4])

Records were scanned for initial eligibility and key article information (i.e. journal, title, date, authors, abstract) and saved to an online bibliographic citation management system called RefWorks.[5]

  • For academic database and NARIC records: the initial scanning process consisted of reviewing the full title and abstract for eligibility. Articles excluded were those that were not research on the Americans with Disabilities Act; conducted before 1990;  not conducted in the US or in English; and/or were duplicate records or separate publications of the same study (i.e. research briefs that provided a short overview of complete doctoral dissertations were excluded in favor of a record of the full dissertation).
  • For grey literature: the initial scanning process consisting of a general search using the terms “Americans with Disabilities Act” in the Worldcat system in addition to specific searches in the WorldCat dissertations, conference proceedings, and papers databases. Preliminary screening found the majority of records did not include the analysis or collection of primary or secondary data (e.g. not research-based but rather a variety of congressional records, governmental hearings, training manuals, and compliance guides about the ADA, etc).  Items that could not be verified as relevant through preliminary screening were ordered as print materials, microfilm, and/or microfiche and screened. Relevant records were subsequently scanned and saved electronically.

Further screening and selection by the research team reduced the number of records from the initial 34,599 to 3,351 records that were identified as potentially relevant and required data extraction (see next section). This number included both retrieved academic literature and grey literature that had been preliminary identified as meeting the initial inclusion criteria (refer to p. 8) or possibly meeting the search criteria (but had not yet been received). Also included in this group were legal documents that had to be vetted for inclusion (i.e. legal or policy analysis that clearly indicated an ADA-related research question and the collation and synthesis of existing evidence in the research abstract), and books/other grey literature that had been scanned but not yet vetted for inclusion/exclusion.

A final screening was conducted by a secondary reviewer who examined the  full 3,351 records for meeting the inclusion criteria. After this screening, 960 studies were dropped after the secondary reviewer noted that the studies did not meet the inclusion criteria. Additionally, 1,417 research records were saved for categorized as legal research that fit outside the scope of this project. Lastly, 37 organizational records were saved for future reviews because they could not easily be coded due to their expansive coverage of multiple ADA issues. Future reviews will include these 37 organizational records as well as supplementary organizational materials relevant to different topic areas.  Figure 1 below provides a visual representation of the decision processes that were used to finalize the selection of 980 pertinent research records.

3.4    Extraction, Analysis & Synthesis of Data  

From the selected 3,351 potentially relevant records we proceeded to the data extraction stage of the scoping review process. Key information points from the academic record abstracts were electronically extracted and entered into a formal spreadsheet document. This included basic record information as noted above, as well as information related to the research questions (e.g. topic of research, stakeholders involved, research design, etc). Extracting similar information from the grey literature and other non-academic records involved a more time-consuming and complicated process. Citations from research in whole books, book chapters, agency reports, and other grey literature reports needed to be manually entered into the spreadsheet. Further, these records were predominantly in hard copy and thus required manual scanning (i.e. from microfiche), where individual reports and/or documents took several hours to scan.  

In line with conventional systematic review techniques the data extraction included intermittent reliability checks along with specific steps to ensure that the data entry and coding was methodologically sound. Data extraction consisted of three separate steps: (i) initial extraction, (ii) Mixed categorical coding, and (iii) reliability checking. These steps are described below.

Initial extraction

The first step of the data extraction process involved retrieving all of the bibliographic information from the pertinent research records. Citation information for all literature was saved to Refworks. The citation information was then exported to an excel database where additional coding and data entry was conducted.

The initial extraction process involved recording data from (i.e. direct quotes; or, when unavailable, a summary) from all (3,351) research abstracts and entering this into the Microsoft excel spreadsheet under the following broad headings:    

  • Organization
  • Method/Research Design
  • Study Goal/Aim/Purpose
  • Key Findings (when provided in the abstract)
  • Stakeholder category
  • Topic/Sub-topics

In addition to the data entry portion of the data extraction, we also verified that the studies met the inclusion criteria during this stage of the research. 2,377 of the 3,351 records were excluded. Reasons for exclusions were that the records did not meet inclusion criteria or the material was unobtainable. Many of these records were found to be legal research, which was beyond the scope of this scoping review (see Limitations section below). Although research findings and study goals were retrieved when they were reported, these data points were not synthesized for this portion of the review. There was not sufficient data to complete an overview of these categories for the scoping review as many social science abstracts do not include descriptions of the findings or goals.

The initial extraction process involved taking direct quotations that applied to each of the headings. When no quotation was available, a descriptive or summative account was provided by the initial reviewer. In addition to the quotations, these descriptions were used to create a list of potential codes to be used for the coding process.

Mixed categorical coding

After the initial data extraction, an preliminary list of coding categories was developed to begin the coding process. A set of categories of topic areas, stakeholder groups, and research methods was collaboratively developed by the research team that had been involved with the data extraction. Additional codes were then developed using two steps. First, a list of potential categories for topic areas and stakeholder groups was generated based on input from the Expert Panel (see Appendix V). The generation of codes stemming from stakeholder input is a common systematic review strategy known as categorical coding. It is useful for studying pre-defined concepts and theories (Gough, Oliver, & Thomas, 2011). The second step for generating codes was an iterative process. Codes were assigned to each record primarily from quotations and the records were then placed into categories. The initial listing of potential codes was refined at this point based on a secondary review of the initial extraction and expert panel input. Additional codes were generated directly from the quotations and summary statements created during the first stage of the data extraction process that could be used to categorize and sort the different research records. When quotations were unavailable, the summary statements or descriptive keywords were used to generate the appropriate code for the research record. This coding process, often referred to as mixed coding, involves building from pre-defined concepts about a topic area to explore other potential topic areas that emerge from the literature   (Gough, Oliver, & Thomas, 2011).

The secondary review of the initial data extraction revealed additional codes and topic areas (marked with an asterisk in Appendix V). Subgroups and subtopics were also assigned based on the initially extracted data. One new topic area (people without disabilities) was added to the final list of codes. This final coding list was used to review the 980 relevant research records that met the inclusion criteria. 37 from organizational reports were additional records were set aside at this point for future systematic review (see Limitations section below).

Reliability Checking

Using the coding sheet, a second reviewer re-examined the initial data entry and cross checked it against the abstract. This process allowed for a brief check to enhance the interrater reliability of the initial data entry and to confirm the categorical codes. This secondary review was primarily useful to ensure the reliable entry and coding of data when no direct quotation was available from the abstract. At this point, the coder marked any disagreements between the assigned codes and the previously generated description into a new column in the Microsoft excel spreadsheet (without physically changing any of the work of the initial data extracter {from step i.} or the coder {from step ii}). Resolutions occurred by the initial reviewer either agreeing with the suggestions, or when agreement could not be made, a third senior reviewer then cross checked and made the final decision about the assigned codes. All codes were finalized before the synthesis stage.

Analysis and Synthesis

The final stage of the scoping review process is descriptive analysis and synthesis of the data which was completed using a descriptive numerical summary (e.g. overall number of studies included, types of study design, topics and/or titles studied, characteristics of disability sub-groups and/or stakeholders, years of publication). The frequency that different research design elements occur in ADA research was calculated to provide an overview of the most common approaches to studying the ADA. The analysis provides a descriptive account of the various factors and data points coded from the different research records. The coded data was grouped in broader methodological, stakeholder and topic categories. The topic and stakeholder categories were created from the expert panel feedback and the initial research team’s input during the preliminary data extraction phase. The subtopics were created from a scanning of the research abstracts for themes and context and reflect the codes that were assigned by the reviewers during the data extraction phase. The factors indicate descriptions of the subtopics and how they were studied in the research and were assigned to each record by the Principal Investigator and Project Director jointly during the final review of the coded data.

3.5    Limitations of the Study

The primary challenge for the UIC research team has been the retrieval of unpublished and print materials.  Unpublished and print materials pose several challenges regarding locating and entering appropriate data. First, the majority of the difficulties arise from obtaining material from 1990-1994 before the internet became readily available to many libraries. These materials are expensive to ship, and libraries are often reluctant to send them. Additionally, many of these materials are not permitted to leave the special collections departments of various libraries (academic and public). When possible, the research team requested photocopies and/or electronic scanned files of the abstracts, introductions, and table of contents. However, a large portion of print materials are still unobtainable at this time. Lastly, a number of unpublished dissertations and research reports are only available via microfilm or microfiche format. When lending libraries are able to deliver these items, it is a very time intensive process to review the research materials and it typically takes between two and three hours to scan one microfilm/microfiche document (such as a thesis or dissertation) in its entirety.

A second limitation in the scoping review is that the research time could not exhaustively search all clearinghouses of grey literature through online databases. Various grey literature databases (such as the OpenDOAR database system) pose additional challenges to retrieve pertinent information in that they are not connected with the electronic library cataloguing system and are only searchable using a Google platform. The Google platform does not offer a way to systematically exclude duplicate and/or irrelevant research records, (for example, a Google scholar search for “Americans with Disabilities Act” yields over 55,000 results). Furthermore, many grey literature databases, including OCLC Worldcat which was used in the scoping review, do not contain abstracts and at times it can be very difficult to identify the  nature of the item to indicate if it is a research document. More often than not there is little information available about the records other than the title, author, and holding library. A portion of the records from OCLC Worldcat system were found on the internet to help deduce the nature of the material and whether or not it was research evidence. When there is no information available, it is often necessary to have the materials shipped to the research team although an extensive amount of materials end up being irrelevant to the study. Therefore only the OCLC Worldcat system was used to search for grey literature due to the extensive time and resource commitment for this type of search and the likelihood of retrieving impertinent materials.

Additional limitations involve the categorization of research records. There are a number of difficulties in separating out records and categorizing them appropriately. When closely examining the analysis, some of these frequencies of different topic areas and stakeholder groups might seem surprisingly low. One of the reasons for this low frequency is in the overlap of topic areas. For example, although only one study pertains to the topic area of nursing (coded as healthcare services), nurses have been stakeholders in many other research studies on the ADA. For example, multiple studies pertain to the education of nurses and a number of studies also pertain to workplace factors such as discrimination or employment of nurses. While there would be valid arguments that these other areas ultimately impact healthcare, this category specifically deals with the actual implementation and delivery of healthcare services as impacted by the ADA.

The difficulty in separating and categorizing research records was further exemplified in the search for research evidence from major disability organizations and possible stakeholders in ADA research. When research records were gathered from organizations, it was often not in a form that could easily be reviewed and included in its current form. For example, the exhaustive and thorough research of the National Council of Disability often includes multiple stages of research, covers various topic areas, and includes a multiplicity of stakeholder groups. Thirty-seven reports containing the collection and/or analysis of existing research were excluded from the scoping review because the wide variety of topics covered in the varying research reports could easily cover each of the broad categories created for the scoping review. It was thus decided that the evidence retrieved from organizational searching would be saved for future more review where key study elements would be analyzed more closely.

Another topic that requires attention in future review is the research of legal scholarship. One priority topic identified by multiple members of the Expert Panel was the legal analysis of the ADA. The Panel particularly emphasized that analysis of early legal research from national organizations, such as the National Council on Disability, is important to explore as a baseline point in the progress and development of research on the ADA. In reviewing legal research, however, there are not clear criteria used to distinguish empirical legal research (legal research that contains the collection and analysis of non-legal data) from other work that appears in law reviews and other typical sources of legal scholarship. In relation to the literature on the ADA, few research studies have a clear data collection and methodology for review. Often times it is difficult to assess if law review articles are driven from specific research questions or strategies and many journals do not require an overview of methodology or theoretical framework. A common and longstanding critique when evaluating legal scholarship is that it often can blend policy and opinion without research-based evidence (Kissam, 1988). The empiricism of legal scholarship thus is a topic that is often in critical debate and falls beyond the scope of this study.

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4. RESULTS

The final search yielded 980 separate research records on the ADA. The results have been descriptively analyzed and synthesized into the following categories: record type, stakeholder groups, topics, and research methods.

4.1    Record Type

Record type refers to the source of the literature. The main source of literature was academic journal articles, specifically the Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation (31 articles); Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation (26 articles); the Journal of Disability Policy Studies (26 articles); the Journal of Rehabilitation (17 articles); and the American Journal of Occupational Therapy (20 articles) where the majority of ADA research has been published to date.  Refer to Figure 2 for the overview of the different types of records that were gathered.

4.2    Stakeholder Group

The stakeholder group pertains to the research participants and/or subject of the research study. We identified eight main stakeholders and 54 subgroups (refer to Table 2). 868 studies involved key stakeholder groups, and 107 studies involved two primary groups. The majority of research focused on people with disabilities, followed by business/employers. Families/Advocates and people without disabilities (i.e. coworkers of people with disabilities) were the least researched groups.

 

Table 2: ADA Stakeholders and Subgroups

TOPIC

SUBTOPICS (and number of records)

 

TOTAL

PERCENTAGE

Businesses/employers

148

15.2%

 

Human Resource Reps

22

Small/ Medium Businesses

12

 

Large business/corporations

11

Unspecified

94

 

Management

9

 

 

Education

 

99

 

 

Administrators

27

Librarians

5

 

ADA/Disability support specialists

8

Students

17

 

Counselors

1

Other university/school employee

4

 

Instructors/teachers

23

Unspecified

14

 

 

 

 

 

Families/advocates

 

11

1.1%

 

Families/advocacy group

6

Families

5

Government/policy makers

 

 

20

2.1%

 

Local/state

12

Unspecified

2

 

Federal

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Industry Specific

 

64

6.6%

 

Architectural designers

1

Hospitality/ tourism professionals

9

 

AT inventors and manufacturers

1

Interior designers

1

 

Attorneys

2

Law enforcement personnel

8

 

Child care providers

4

Restaurant owner/operators

2

 

Construction workers

1

Retailers

7

 

Farmers and Ranchers

1

Sports admins

1

 

Fire fighting personnel

1

State/Public Parks Personnel

3

 

Fitness club workers

3

Transportation professionals and administrators

19

 

 

 

 

 

People with disabilities

 

 

555

56.9%

 

Specific demographic

228

Specified occupation

50

 

Specific disability type

30

Unspecified

247

 

 

 

 

 

People without disabilities

 

6

.6%

Coworkers of people with disabilities

3

Unspecified

3

 

 

 

 

Practitioners/Service Providers

 

 

72

10.2%

 

Occupational therapists

11

Dentists

1

 

Psychologist/psychiatrists

6

Administrators

3

 

Social workers

5

Physicians

4

 

Rehabilitation Counselors/ Vocational Rehab Providers

9

Social Service Agency personnel

6

 

Nurses

2

Pharmacists

1

 

Optometrists

1

Sign language interpreters

2

 

Substance abasement treatment staff

1

Unspecified

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOTAL*:                                  975                                                      100%        *107 studies included two or more stakeholders. 112 records did not have a primary stakeholder group and were either theoretical or architectural design/compliance related studies. 

4.3    Topics

We identified 16 main topics and a number of different sub-topics. The description of each topic can be found in Appendix VI. The clear majority of research (about half of all studies identified in the scoping review) on the ADA relates to employment, specifically as it relates to discrimination and harassment. While most of the topics have 17 or more records, there were a group of topic areas that have been less studied in comparison to the other major topics. These include: child care, emergency preparedness and response, and voting. Refer to Table 3.

Table 3:  Topic and subtopics of ADA Research

TOPIC

SUBTOPICS (and number of records)

 

TOTAL

PERCENTAGE

Accessibility and compliance (Title II/III)

76

7.80%

 

Retailers/private business

23

State facilities

5

 

Athletic facilities

13

Federal

government facilities

3

 

Lodging/hospitality/tourism

10

Assistive technology/ video relay services

3

 

Parks/recreation

9

Social service agencies

2

 

Unspecified public places

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ADA's interaction with other policies

 

13

1.30%

 

SSDI

3

FMLA

1

 

Other anti-discrimination policies

3

Health care reform

1

 

Vocational Rehab policy

2

American Indian legislation

1

 

ICIDH

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Architectural/Engineering Design

 

33

3.40%

 

Building accessibility

10

Routes/Pathways

2

 

Surface/sidewalk  design

5

Interior Design

1

 

Ramp design

5

Assistive technology/mobility device design

1

 

Historic Preservation

3

Universal Design

1

 

Communication/Communication devices

2

Ergonomics

1

 

Door/lock design

2

 

 

Child Care

 

 

7

0.70%

 

Accessibility/ compliance

4

Accommodations

1

 

Safety/health

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Criminal Justice System

 

9

0.90%

 

Compliance/accommodations in legal/criminal justice system

4

Crime reporting

1

 

Implementation in law enforcement agencies

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Education

 

 

161

16.40%

 

Colleges/Universities

103

Community Colleges

4

 

Library services

20

Special schools

2

 

K-12 Schooling

20

Arts Programming

1

 

testing (any school situation)

5

Seminary schools

1

 

Adult education/employment training

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emergency preparedness/response

 

6

0.60%

 

Evacuation

2

Policy and planning

1

 

Fire safety

2

Communication

1

 

 

 

 

 

Employment

 

                  474

                 48.40%

 

 

Discrimination/Harassment

109

Professional licensing

4

 

Accommodations

75

Coworker perspectives

4

 

Employer perspectives

72

Retention

4

 

Paid work/open labor market

60

Web Compliance

3

 

Vocational/Occupational therapy

23

Advancement

3

 

Hiring

22

Insurance coverage/workman's comp

3

 

Implementation of Title I

14

Collective Bargaining

3

 

Disclosure of disability

12

Genetic screening

2

 

Employee perspectives

10

Pre-employment screening

2

 

Return to work

10

Recruiting

2

 

Job function analysis/job descriptions

9

Workplace safety

2

 

Organizational Management

7

Home based work

1

 

Job training

6

One-stop centers

1

 

Supported Employment

6

Technical assistance

1

 

Physical accessibility/compliance

4

 

 

Health/Healthcare

 

49

5.00%

 

Prenatal testing

1

Health information

3

 

Healthcare facilities/ equipment

12

Genetic discrimination

1

 

Consumer Empowerment

1

Healthcare providers/practitioner services - general

2

 

Healthcare Access

6

Home healthcare

1

 

Alcohol/ substance abuse treatment

2

Insurance

0

 

Managed Care

1

Pharmacies

1

 

Secondary Health Conditions/health status

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Housing

 

 

10

1.00%

 

Deinstitutionalization

6

Community services

4

 

 

 

 

 

Media representation

 

8

0.80%

 

News coverage

4

Public perception

4

 

 

 

 

 

Philosophy/history

 

34

3.50%

 

Policy discourse

14

Theoretical approaches

2

 

Definitions of disability

10

Ethics

2

 

History of the legislative process

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Policy process

 

20

2.00%

 

General policy processes

10

Federal

3

 

Municipal/local government

6

State/local

1

 

 

 

 

 

Self advocacy/empowerment

 

17

1.70%

 

Activism

7

Impact on everyday life

5

 

Knowledge building

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Transportation

 

60

6.10%

 

Paratransit

24

Transit planning and policies

6

 

Public transportation

16

Parking

3

 

Stations/ bus stops

7

Fixed route transit

3

 

 

 

 

Roadways

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Voting

 

 

3

0.30%

 

Social/legal barriers

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOTAL:                                    980                                                      100%

 

Sub-Topic Issues

The top five topics that were researched (employment, education, accessibility and compliance, transportation, health) were additionally analyzed into the key ways in which the sub-topics were studied (refer to Table 4). There a number of different issues that cross-cut topic areas, the most common being compliance rates (263 records); attitudes and knowledge about people with disabilities and the ADA (131); barriers/facilitators to implementation (77); and costs (37).   

Table 4:  Most common sub-topic issues (by number of records)

 

Topic Area

 

Employment

Education

Accessibility/ Compliance

Transportation

Health

TOTAL

Sub-issues

Attitudes knowledge

80

36

2

2

11

131

Barriers/facilitators

43

8

7

9

10

77

Compliance rate

154

29

66

8

6

263

Costs

26

2

1

8

--

37

 

4.4    Research Methods

The research evidence on the ADA includes a wide range of methodologies and research design to study the policy’s effects and implementation. The research was categorized into four primary categories: qualitative, quantitative, theoretical/policy analysis, and mixed methods (refer to Figure 3). Almost half of all the research on the ADA is quantitative.

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5. SUMMARY & NEXT STEPS

5.1    Key Findings

A scoping review has been used in this project to understand what has been researched and studied in relation to the ADA. It is the first step in a full systematic review. This stage of the research is mostly useful for providing a broad descriptive overview of the state of ADA research. Future analysis over the course of this project will generate more specific summative evidence regarding the effects of the ADA on implementation in key policy areas. Also, moving forward, the initial results have many broader implications for the future study of the ADA. The results from studying each of the key areas in the scoping review (method, topics, subtopics, and stakeholders) suggest the need for future inquiry in seldom-researched areas as well as expansive analysis in the areas for which we have more thorough and substantive evidence.

Future analysis in the systematic review will closely examine the variation in approach and findings that are arrived at using different methods and research designs. We found that the majority of existing research on the ADA is quantitative, followed by theoretical/policy analysis. Further qualitative studies are needed to understand the lived experienced of disability since the passing of the ADA. As we continue to see disagreement and fragmented results amongst the quantitative studies, qualitative research will provide a more analytical and exploratory account of ADA implementation.

In terms of stakeholders (i.e. either as participants in the research studies, or the subject of the research), the main focus of ADA research has been on people with disabilities and business/employers. While neither of these findings are particularly surprising, a more detailed account of how these groups have been approached within the research will tell us more about research directions and gaps in findings. Although people with disabilities are frequently the target of ADA research, it is still not clear how and which communities with disabilities have been approached. In the study of the ADA, future inquiry, including the future systematic review, need to more closely investigate how multi-layered categories are impacting research findings to fully comprehend how the policy is impacting rights and social justice for people with disabilities. Future inquiry of the ADA evidence requires a thoughtful analysis of how the stakeholders have been included in the research, and their role in their research in relation to social justice. In addition to defending the rights of the people with disabilities, the ADA also impacts numerous other stakeholder groups. Besides employers, other groups such as disability service providers, families and associates of people with disabilities, health care workers and many industry professionals are impacted by and are a part of the ADA’s implementation. However, many of these groups are inadequately represented in the literature. One of the most noticeable gaps is the very small pool of research specifically about family and advocates of people with disabilities. This group represents an additional gap that will require additional attention in relation to the ADA, especially as housing and support policies continue to shift away from the state to families and the community. Research concerning this stakeholder group spans many topic areas, including the developing discussions of care and aging. There has been minimal research that discusses the intersection of family policy and the ADA even with emerging trends and concerns for the well being of this stakeholder group.

While critical stakeholders and subtopic areas that are vastly important to the changing landscape of national disability policy remain understudied, some topic areas have been at the forefront of ADA inquiry since the policy’s inception. The main ADA topic studied has been employment, particularly as it relates to discrimination and harassment. These findings further support previous academic claims about the existing research evidence about the ADA. For example, that the ADA is overanalyzed in relation to the impact of Title I on the employment rate of people with disabilities. Reasons for the ADA’s failure are subsequently discussed in relation to the court’s actions and not other social institutions. These findings posit multiple theoretical questions and directions for the future of the field. First, with this large body of research can we make empirical claims on the ADA’s effectiveness in this area? Secondly, although the ADA covers many domains of social living, why is it so overwhelmingly analyzed in relation to employment? These questions require exploration in relation to the other key areas that were tracked in the scoping review, such as the methodologies used to study the ADA’s implementation. The need to investigate how research varies across different methodological pursuits can provide additional insight into key topic areas and pragmatic debates on the ADA. For example, although this review revealed that the topic area of employment is the most prevalent ADA research area, key facts and figures for which we have empirical and longitudinal data have still not provided us with an adequate depiction of how or why changes to labor market participation occur. Foregone conclusions on seemingly straightforward concepts such as employment and hiring rates have been challenged in research. Key questions, such as how the ADA has impacted the open labor market participation and experience of people with disabilities, remain unsettled and underdeveloped in research.  Different quantitative research studies most often explore the issue of open labor market participation by analyzing hiring rates, labor participation rates, and frequency of discrimination charges. More than 150 research records pertain to the study of “rates” in relation to different areas of employment.  In addition to rates, however, there has been a plethora of research that looks more into labor market participation from other angles such as attitudes or perceptions about people with disabilities. These issues have also been commonly explored using a quantitative methodology, looking at the frequency and prevalence of discrimination. Further qualitative inquiry can better piece together the relational aspect of many of these factors. The benefits of a full mixed-methods review is that future study will allow for the comparison of the many outcomes in key topic areas, and to simultaneously analyze how these conclusions have been drawn. Additional research needs to provide a more nuanced overview of the employment experience of people with disabilities to better settle some of the debates on the impact of the ADA’s implementation. 

In addition to a broader analysis of the often-studied topic areas, future ADA research needs to explore often discussed areas that have little research evidence. Critical topic areas that have clear policy implications for people with disabilities remain under synthesized. For example, emergency preparedness has virtually no empirical research on its relation to the ADA. Federal government and other policy/agency organizations have historically neglected people with disabilities from emergency preparedness initiatives and policies. However, more recently there has been some push to develop policy that better includes people with disabilities in emergency planning. Yet, these policy suggestions and large-scale organizational reports have not resulted in subsequent research investigating the impact of the ADA in this area. Although emergency preparedness and disaster management are pressing policy issues, the intersectional analysis of emerging policies with the ADA is seldom explored. This area will require further attention given the increase in natural and other emergencies that require better policy responses.

Additional findings related to underexplored research areas are puzzling both due to their importance in relation to the ADA and the large pool of unutilized data in their areas. For example, the limited research on the ADA and housing is also surprisingly low, particularly when there is access to longitudinal data in this area (e.g. State of the States on Developmentally Disabilities and other related projects). However, only a small amount of research asks how the ADA specifically has impacted housing. Additionally, there is a dearth of information of how the ADA has impacted the civic engagement of people with disabilities. Similar to the area of housing, large pools of longitudinal data exist that track progress in relation to issues such as voter turnout (e.g. the Harris Poll and various institutional reports that make use of their data sets). The dearth of literature on these two topic areas is partly indicative of a limitation of this scoping review because large scale organizational reports spanning multiple topic areas, including voter turnout, were excluded from the scoping review. These reports could not be easily categorized into the various subtopic grouping and would skew the findings. Instead, such reports will be further utilized in future systematic reviews addressing more specific research questions. Future exploration of the compounding factors impacting the ongoing discrimination in the civic engagement of people with disabilities is necessary and requires thorough analysis of the available resources and longitudinal data. Additionally, next steps of the systematic review will further take into account how and what research evidence organizational reports contribute to the body of knowledge on the ADA.

5.2    Stakeholder Feedback

To help direct future research and to ensure the usefulness of this research, the research team collaborated with a variety of ADA stakeholders. In February 2013, the expert panel met with the research team to help confirm findings, identify gaps in the research, and direct the upcoming rapid evidence and systematic reviews. Prior to our February meeting, expert panel members were asked to review the technical brief and provide some initial feedback to guide our discussion. Additionally, directors of the ADA National network centers were also individually consulted for feedback, as well as members of the national Knowledge Translation committee, who provided feedback during a phone presentation. Both the expert panel and center directors completed a short worksheet to provide commentary on the findings. The worksheet asked a series of questions to identify the important areas of research most relevant to the various stakeholders. This information has been incorporated below.

The first task that we asked of the stakeholders was to identify the most commonly debated conclusions about the ADA that lack decisive answers.  The panel and directors identified three commonly debated areas in the ADA implementation research. Of those that responded to the question, all agreed that the area of employment is most commonly studied and debated but has drawn the least amount of decisive conclusion. There are still frequent discrepancies on the study of ADA and employment in regards to access to the open labor market, how perceptions of people with disabilities have changed in the employment sector, and more generally, how the ADA has enhanced employment outcomes and opportunities. An additional often-debated area that was identified was the area of social participation of people with disabilities in regards to how the ADA has impacted, social capital and the quality of life of people with disabilities across all domains of life.  One respondent noticed that the ADA has had a substantial impact on improving architectural accessibility in many aspects of everyday life, but noted that there is little conclusive research evidence to document this change. Lastly, the group agreed that here has not been a summative conclusion on the ADA’s impact in regard to compliance and accessibility. Stakeholders noted how there has been much debate about the success and failures of implementing the ADA by service providers. Question remain unanswered: has the ADA improved the quality of and access to goods and services? Has the ADA really improved access to public accommodations?

Addressing these types of questions are difficult and requires carefully assessing literature to gauge its application to the ADA. One panel member asked us to consider in future reviews what the different is between research relevant to the ADA versus  “ADA research?” As noted by another panel member, ADA research refers to the evidence specific to the implementation goals of the ADA in regards to ensuring the full and equal participation of people with disabilities. It was reiterated that participation is a vital issue for any systematic study of the ADA.

As the stakeholders indicated, research questions pertinent to employment and access are frequently studied, often debated, and remain unanswered. Few people were thus surprised at the prevalence of research in these topic areas. One respondent noted that with the wide breadth of studies, future more comprehensive analysis using qualitative and mixed-methods can bring greater clarity to the issues impacting the ADA in the area of employment. We specifically asked if any of the results from the scoping review were surprising. This question was asked partly to generate discussion and also partly to add in a member check to ensure that sufficient research in the various topic areas had been retrieved. In response, we received some additional published and unpublished reports that will be useful for future topic-area specific reviews, but did not meet the initial scoping inclusion because they covered multiple stakeholders and topics.  In general, stakeholders found that few results were surprising. The lack of publications in trade- specific areas, not including those found in disability related publications and journals, was identified as an area that needs further attention in ADA research. One of the only surprises was the high prevalence of studies that try to investigate employment rates, even though much of this research has not produced a shared conclusion.  Respondents noted that there has been less evidence regarding other issues such as attitudes, barriers, and retention rates. Other surprisingly under-researched topic areas were deinstitutionalization, self-advocacy, and criminal justice, although the stakeholders agreed that these areas have been studied more commonly outside of their relation to the ADA. There was additional surprise at the lack of stakeholder involvement with substance abuse providers as the topic of substance abuse was highly contested in the drafting of the ADA and continues to be a contentious issue debated in the legal literature today.

Of the research areas we identified as having a sufficient amount of evidence to systematically review (employment, healthcare, education, compliance/accessibility), the panel members and directors indicated that employment and healthcare were priority areas to address in subsequent reviews. We left one research area open-ended to seek opinions on additional priority areas.  Some stakeholders expressed interest in examining the area of transportation, but also noted that a lot of essential research still needs to be conducted in this area. Additionally, the area of deinstitutionalization is considered an important area, particularly as the Olmstead decision applies to both community living and employment. Although almost all participants selected employment as the key area to review, a few respondents thought this was the least important area because of the wide range of research already prevalent in this area. These respondents noted that the core issue of physical accessibility and compliance in both the public and private sector were more essential to summative understand the ADA’s impact.

During the expert panel meeting, the selection choices were discussed and complicated. For example, a number of panel members insisted that it would be important to look at what was referred to as the “covariance” between topic areas: carefully addressing how the topics relate to and impact each other.  As one panel member noted, although the topic of employment is the most ubiquitous of ADA research, it is also one that cuts across all of the other topic areas identified in the scoping review and is not easily separated as its own stand alone category. The stakeholder feedback to examine the core area of accessibility and compliance also supports the notions that this area should be closely examined as it relates to the employment sector as well. In terms of specific research questions for the systematic reviews, the feedback provided on the worksheet initially indicated that the two most important research questions to ask in relation to the topics were: “how has the ADA impacted the rate and experience of people with disabilities in the open labor market?” and, “how was the ADA improved access to healthcare equipment and services?” One person noted that an additional healthcare subtopic should include the intersection of how other factors can impact access such as accreditation or Medicaid eligibility. The topic area of Internet access, assistive technology, and information technology also emerged as an additional priority area during the group discussion, and was supported by ADA director feedback. It was noted that this interest was partly driven be recent testimony in Congress by the Department of Justice that cited the Internet as the most vital area to improve policy and access for people with disabilities. This is a topic area that can stand alone as a research area, and also importantly cross cuts across the aforementioned areas of health and employment.

The stakeholder feedback was also useful to narrow down subtopic areas for our future research questions. Two policy experts reiterated the notion that the study of employment rates are of little use, and can lead the research down an unnecessary  “worm hole” investigating the nuances of studies that are not useful to ADA stakeholders. This advice further supported our previous inclination to look at more nuanced issues of the employment experience of people with disabilities including retention, access, and attitudinal studies. Additionally, studies pertaining to physical and web accessibility were commonly noted by the directors as essential subtopics for any systematic review question. There was some concern about the relevance of a systematic review of the ADA and healthcare due to the broad changes imminent to our health care system in the next year, in particular with the Affordable Care Act. However, many stakeholders reiterated the importance of health care research, and noted that a review of the ADA’s impact on healthcare could provide a substantive and useful baseline to understand future policy directions. An additional issue identified as particularly relevant for future reviews was to note differences in findings between disability types.

All of these suggestions will be taken under further consideration for the development of research questions in the rapid evidence and systematic reviews. The Expert Panel will continue to meet bi-annually with the core research team to provide feedback as the project evolves. The collaboration efforts with the Expert Panel on developing and refining review questions at each stage of the systematic reviews proposed in this project will ensure that the results have policy and practice implications.

5.3    Dissemination Activities

To date, the research team has presented in the following forums:

  • ADA Knowledge Translation Systematic Review Expert Panel. July 13, 2012. (Online webinar).
  • National ADA Network Director’s Meeting. August 1, 2012. (Monthly phone meeting).
  • Great Lakes ADA Center State Affiliate Advisory Council meeting. November 15, 2012. Chicago, IL.
  • National ADA Network annual meeting. December 3, 2012. Washington, DC.

Planned presentations are as follows: 

  • UC-Berkley Symposium on Implementing Disability Rights, March 2013
  • NARRTC  Annual Conference, April 2013
  • Society for Disability Studies Annual Conference, June 2013.
  • American Sociological Association Annual Conference, August 2013
  • Society for the Study of Social Problems Annual Conference, August 2013

Publications, current and planned, include: 

  • Plain language summaries:
    • Defining evidence in the systematic review process (2012)
    • The ADA systematic review project: overview and methods (2012)
    • Scoping review of the ADA: a year 1 summary (2013)
  • Systematic Review of the ADA Research: what exists, and where do we go from here? (journal article in development) 
  • Epistemological Considerations of a Mixed-Method Systematic Review of the ADA (journal article in development)

Return to Table of Contents

REFERENCES

Crotty, M. (1998). The foundations of social research. Sage: Thousand Oaks, California.

Gough, D. Oliver, S. & Thomas, J. (2011) An Introduction to Systematic Reviews. Sage: Thousand Oaks California.

Grant, M. & Booth, A. (2009).  A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies. Health Information and Libraries Journal,  26, 91–108

Guba, E. & Lincoln, Y. (1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In N.K. Denzin &

Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.) Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 105-117) Sage: Thousand Oaks, California.

Jesson, J., Matheson , L., & Lacey, F. (2011). Doing your literature review: Traditional and Systematic Techniques. Sage: Thousand Oaks California.

Kissam, P (1988). The evaluation of Legal Scholarship. Washington Law Review. 63. 221.

Levac, D., Colquhoun, H., O'Brien, K. (2010). Scoping studies: advancing the methodology. Implementation Science. 1(5) 69. Retrieved from http://www.implementationscience.com/content/pdf/1748-5908-5-69.pdf

Mertens, D. (2010). Research and evaluation in education and psychology: Integrating diversity

with quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. Sage: Thousand Oaks California

National Council on Disability (U.S.). (2007). The Impact of the Americans with Disabilities Act:   Assessing the Progress Toward Achieving the Goals of the Americans with Disabilities Act.         Washington, DC : National Council on Disability. Retrieved from http://www.ncd.gov/publications/2007/07262007

Petticrew, M., & Roberts, H. (2005). Systematic reviews in the social sciences. A practical guide. London: Blackwell.

 

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APPENDICIES

Appendix I: Expert Panel Members

  1. Meera Adya

Director of Research, Burton Blatt Institute

  1. Mary Lou Breslin

Senior Policy Advisor, Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund

  1. Julie Carroll

Senior Attorney Advisor, National Council on Disability

  1. LaWanda Cook

Extension Associate/Training Specialist, Northeast ADA Center, Cornell University

  1. Lex Frieden

Professor, Biomedical Informatics/Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Texas; Director, Independent Living Research Utilization Program, Texas

  1. Jill Houghton

Executive Director, US Business Leadership Network

  1. Bonnie O'Day

Senior Researcher, Mathematic Policy Research

  1. Jon Sanford

Director, Center for Assistive Technology and Environmental Access; Associate Professor, Architecture, Georgia Institute of Technology

  1. Richard Scotch

Professor, Sociology, University of Texas at Dallas

  1. Bobby Silverstein

Principal at Powers Pyles Sutter & Verville PC, Washington DC

 

  1. Barry Taylor

Vice President for Civil Rights and Systemic Litigation, Equip for Equality

  1. Mark Weber

Professor, DePaul University College of Law

 

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Appendix II: Academic Databases

Academic search premier:

Contains journals and books in social sciences, humanities, science, medicine, technology: has many ADA related articles

ArticleFirst:

ArticleFirst indexes the tables of contents from journals.

Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals:

The Avery Index treats the subjects of archaeology, city planning, interior design, historic preservation, and architecture. Contains many ADA articles related to Architecture

AccessPhysiotherapy:

Provides access to textbooks, modalities, videos and other resources for physical therapy students, educators, and those in practice seeking to maintain certification.

ATLA/ATLAS:

ATLA indexes journal articles, book reviews, and collections of essays in all fields of religion

ABI Inform Global (New ProQuest Platform):

A business research database with full-text articles from business journals and newspapers. Contains articles on ADA related to business

ACM Guide to Computing Literature:

The Guide is a collection of bibliographic citations and abstracts of publications in computer science: we can find articles related to ADA and computer use

Ageline:

Ageline is a resource related to aging and middle age, produced by the Amer Assn of Retired Persons (AARP): contains ADA articles related to elderly persons

Alternative Press Index:

Alternative Press Index covers alternative radical and left publications.

American Institute of Physics Online Journals:

Publications of the American Institute of Physics: contains relevant articles on design, access, communication etc

American Medical Association JAMA and AMA Archives Journals:

Publications of the American Medical Association: contains some articles across medical fields and the ADA

Annual Reviews:

Annual summations of research in 40 disciplines in scientific, technological and social sciences: I found very few but could contain more ADA related articles

Books in Print with Reviews (Bowker):

Current list of books in print as well as out-of-print and forthcoming books, ebooks, audiobooks and videos. There are books across the ADA titles

Books@Ovid:

Selected ebooks in medicine, nursing, pharmacology and anesthesiology: We can find books with chapters on the ADA

Business source Premier:

Full text of more than 2,100 business and trade journals, some going back to 1965. Contains literature on the ADA and employment, business accommodation, etc

Child Care and Early education Research Connections:

This is an open access database on early education and child care research and policy: Has ADA publications related to child care and education

CINAHL Plus w/ Full Text

CINAHL covers literature related to nursing and allied health: contains many articles on ADA related to nursing and health in general

Cochrane Library:

Independent medical evidence on which to base clinical treatment decisions: I only found one systematic review, improved searching could locate more literature

Communication and Mass Media Complete:

Full text coverage of communication and mass media and related fields: contains articles on ADA related to internet communication

Compendex:

Comprehensive database of engineering research: many articles on ADA and Engineering topics

Consumer Health Complete:

Consumer-oriented coverage of all areas of health and wellness from mainstream medicine. Contains wide ranging articles across health issues

Contemporary Women’s Issues:

Global information on women's health, personal development and socioeconomic conditions: we can find some ADA related publications on varied topics

CQ: Congressional Quarterly Public Affairs Collection:

Public affairs reports, historic documents and analyses. Good source for Congressional documents related to the ADA

CQ: Congressional Quarterly Researcher:

Provides snapshots of current affairs. Some information is available of ADA implementation

CQ: Congressional Quarterly Supreme Court Collections:

Supreme Court decisions, biographies of Supreme Court justices, institutional history, and the U.S. Constitution. Good source for Supreme court decisions on ADA cases

Criminal Justice Abstracts:

Coverage of criminal justice and substance abuse from 1968: useful for literature on ADA compliance, court cases, etc

Current contents connect: 1998 to present:

Tables of contents captured from current issues of leading scholarly research journals and books in the sciences, social sciences, and arts and humanities. Has some ADA literature

DARE: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects:

Database of evidence-based systematic reviews of diagnostic tests, public health, pharmacology, surgery, psychology and the health care system. I found one study on the ADA related to accommodation request

Dentistry and Oral Sciences Source:

Covers all facets relating to the areas of dentistry including dental public health, but has some articles related to ADA and dental health

Dissertations and Thesis:

This is the new platform to many doctoral dissertations originating from universities in the Big Ten conference from 1997 to present.

EBSCOhost:

This link provides access to the EBSCO Homepage of the EBSCO databases to which the UIC Library subscribes. From this Homepage you can select various databases to search simultaneously.

Econlit:

Contains Journals, dissertations, books, and working papers on economics

Education Abstracts:

Covers every age and sector of the educational community from preschool through college.

EMBASE: Excerpta Medica Database:

Database in biomedicine and pharmaceutical research From 1974 to present. Contains some medicine  research related to the ADA

Engineering Village 2:

This is the most comprehensive databases of engineering and technical research available. Contains many articles on engineering related to the ADA.

ERIC: Educational Resource Information Center:

The largest educational database in the world; contains some article on ADA related to education.

ETHX:

A collection of articles on ethical issues in medicine and biomedical research. There are loads of ADA related research on medicine and bio-ethics.

Film and Television Literature Index:

Contains film and television books, articles, reviews, essays, some of them related to the ADA

FirstGov:

U.S. government's official web portal to all federal, state and local government web resources and services. Contains many government’s official ADA documents

Firstsearch:

Platform for cross-searching databases in multiple disciplines: some ADA articles are available

Genederwatch:

Focuses on the impact of gender across a broad spectrum of subject areas.

Google Scholar:

This is a search engine that focuses on academic output

Government Periodicals Index:

Contains Newspapers, journals and magazines published by the U.S. government from 1988-present, and a lot on the ADA

Guide to Computing Literature:

The Guide is a collection of bibliographic citations and abstracts of publications in computer science. Has articles on ADA and ICT

Handbooks in economics:

Each e-book set presents a self-contained survey of the current state of a specific sub-field of economics. A lot of ADA literature related to economics

HathiTrust Digital Library:

Provides access to collections of the over 50 partner institutions who have contributed their works to be accessible in digital form. I found many ADA related literature

Healthsource: Consumer Edition:

Consumer health information including reference books, reports and pamphlets, drug information: ADA related literature available

Healthsource: Nursing/Academic Edition:

Contains Nursing and allied health sciences scholarly journal literature.

Humanities Abstracts:

Abstracts covering diverse subject areas of the humanities.

IEEE Explore:

IEEE journals and conference proceedings; Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) journals and proceedings; we can find ADA literature related to engineering

Index to Legal Periodicals and Books:

Covers all areas of jurisprudence in the U.S., Canada, Great Britain, Ireland, Australia, and New Zealand. Has many ADA law literatures.

International Pharmaceutical Abstracts:

Pharmaceutical and health related literature from 1970 to the present. Contains literature on ADA related to pharmacy

JSTOR:

Digitized back issues of scholarly journals with a rolling date of five years ago. I could not find ADA literature…further search may be useful!

LexisNexis Academic:

Contains news, business, government and law, business journals, case law, law reviews; etc.

LexisNexis: U.S. Congressional Serials set:

Full-text collection of periodicals compiled under directive of the Congress. It includes the Congressional Record.

LexisNexis: U.S. Government Periodicals Index:

Newspapers, journals and magazines published by the U.S. government from 1988 to present.

Library Literature and Information Science Full Text:

Library and information sciences journals, books, conference proceedings and theses.

Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts (CSA platform):

Information about the nature and use of language. Covers various fields of linguistics, (1973 to present).

LISTA: Library, Information Science and Technology Abstracts: :

Freely accessible database of citations to library and information sciences journals, proceedings, books, etc. contains literature of ADA and web accessibility of people with disabilites

MAS Ultra Magazine Contents: P

Articles in popular, general interest and current events.

MD Consult:

Complete prescribing information from the leading independent drug reference source; also, core Medical and Dental reference books, textbooks, journals and clinical practice guidelines.

Medline via Pubmet:

Provides access to MEDLINE citations and additional life sciences books and databases from mid-1960s to present.

Medline Plus:

Consumers' health information produced by the National Library of Medicine that is authoritative and up to date.

Military and Government Collection:

Offers current news pertaining to all branches of the military.

MLA Directory of Periodicals:

Information about the journals and book series indexed by the Modern Language Association. Some ADA literature on language available.

Multiple Resources Search:P

Search engine for articles in databases

Music Index Online:

Music Index Online is a subject-author guide to music literature, reviews and news. I found one article on ADA and music

National Criminal Services Reference:

This is a federally funded resource offering justice and drug-related information to support research, policy, and program development worldwide. ADA literature related to criminal justice and police were found

New York Times Historical Archives:

Digitized back issues of the New York Times from 1851 to 2005

Newspaper Source:

Current major newspapers and selected regional newspapers plus newscast transcripts.

PIAS:

Political, social, and public policy issues, especially any topics that are or might become the subject of legislation

Pharmaceutical Abstracts:

Also contains some literature related to ADA and pharmacy

Philosophical Abstracts:

Books and journals of philosophy and related fields.

Physics Abstracts:

Physics Abstracts is a sub-file available through Inspec/Engineering Village.

Political Science Abstracts Worldwide:

International literature in political science and its complementary fields, including international relations, law, and public administration & policy. We can find ADA related publications

Professional Development Collection (for educators):

Provides a highly specialized collection of nearly 600 full text education journals, 1965 to present

ProQuest Databases:

This is a portal to a growing list of Proquest research products, including Theses & Dissertations, Historical Newspapers, ABI/Inform business collection, and more

PsycArticles:

Articles published by the American Psychological Association and Canadian Psychological Association.

Public Affairs Collection: CQ Press:

Independent, nonpartisan coverage of vital public policy issues; statistical and historical analyses, and full-text historical documents and primary source materials.

Pubmet:

PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine, provides access to MEDLINE citations back to the mid-1960's to present.

Readers’ Guide Abstracts:

Abstracts of articles in popular magazines, with links to full text where available.

Regional Business news:

75 business journals, newspapers and newswires covering all metropolitan and rural areas within the United States.

Religion databases and Serials:

American Theological Library Association portal: five articles on the ADA were found.

Research Instruments: Health and Psychological instruments:

Information on measurement instruments (questionnaires, interview schedules, checklists, index measures, coding schemes/ manuals, rating scales, tests, etc.

SAGE Premier Full Text:

Platform for journals in journals in communications studies, criminology, education, nursing, political science, psychology, sociology, urban studies & planning, and more.

SAGE Reference E-books:

Growing collection of topic and subject encyclopedias online.

Science Citation Index:

Access to articles found in scholarly journals in science and technology (1970 to present)

Science Direct:

Platform for a wide variety of journals and e-books across all fields of natural sciences, applied sciences and technology, and social sciences.

Social Science Abstracts:

Gives fast access to a wide assortment of the most important English-language journals published in the U.S. and elsewhere.

Social Sciences Citation Index:

Bibliographic information and cited references with links to full text when available. Covers scholarly journals on social sciences (1970 to present)

Social Services Abstracts:

Provides current research focused on social work, human services, and related areas, including social welfare, social policy, and community development

Social Work Abstracts:

Covers social work and other related journals on topics such as homelessness, AIDS, child and family welfare, aging, substance abuse, legislation, community organization, and more. 1977 to present.

Sociological Abstracts: A (Proquest Platform):

International literature in sociology and related disciplines in the social and behavioral sciences. This is the new platform for Sociological Abstracts.

Supreme Court Collection:

Historical analyses and expert commentary along with primary sources of Supreme Court decisions, biographies of Supreme Court justices, Supreme Court institutional history, and the U.S. Constitution.

U.S. Congressional Serials Sets:

Reports, surveys, research and statistical series published by Congress and Federal executive agencies; compiled under directive of the Congress.

U.S. Government Periodicals Index:

Index of current Federal agency publications from 1988-present.

Urban Studies Abstracts:

Bibliographic citations to articles on urban affairs, community development, urban history and more.

Web of Knowledge:

Gives access to Web of Science, Current Contents Connect, and Journal Citation Reports.

Willey IEEE eBook Library:

Provides access to all current year IEEE-Wiley eBook titles plus access to the complete backlist of more than 400 titles.

Wiley Online Library:

Platform for searching across all Wiley journals, online books from 2005-2011, and Current Protocols laboratory manuals

Worldwide Political Science Abstracts:

International literature in political science and its complementary fields, including international relations, law, and public administration & policy. From 1975 to present.

Return to Table of Contents

Appendix III: Academic Journals

AAOHN Journal

Employee Responsibilities & Rights Journal

Journal of Human Resources

Occupational Medicine (Oxford)

Academic Medicine

Environment & behavior

Journal of Interior Design

Occupational Therapy International

Academy of Management Journal

Epilepsy & Behavior

Journal of Law & Education

Occupational Therapy Journal of Research

Academy of Management Review

Expert Systems with Applications

Journal of learning disabilities

Ohio Northern University Law Review

ADA Compliance Guide

Facilities

Journal of Management

Ohio State Law Journal

Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly

Family & Community Health.

Journal of Managerial Psychology

Oncology nursing forum

Administration & Society

Faseb Journal

Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics

Optometry and Vision Science

Administration in Social Work

Focus on Autism & Other Developmental Disabilities

Journal of music therapy

Organizational dynamics

Advances in Developing Human Resources

Foreign Language Annals

Journal of neurologic rehabilitation

Park Practice Publications

Advances in Special Education

Free Inquiry in Creative Sociology

Journal of Nursing Administration

Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics

Alabama Law Review

Generations

Journal of Nursing Education

Physical Therapy

ama

Gerontologist

Journal of occupational health psychology

Physics Teacher

American Annals of the Deaf

Group & Organization Management

Journal of Occupational Medicine

PLoS currents

American Association on Mental Retardation (AAIDD)

Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review

Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation

Police Practice & Research

American Business Law Journal

Health & Social Care in the Community

Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance (JOPERD)

Policy studies journal: the journal of the Policy Studies Organization

American Journal of Economics and Sociology

Health & social work

Journal of Physical Therapy Education

Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice

American Journal of Epidemiology

Hofstra Labor and Employment Law Journal

Journal of Planning Literature

Polity

American Journal of Family Therapy

Houston Law Review

Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology

Professional Psychology: Research and Practice

American Journal of Health Promotion

Human Resource Development Quarterly

Journal of Political Economy

Psychiatric rehabilitation journal

American Journal of Law & Medicine

Human resource management

Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability

Psychiatric Rehabilitation Skills

American Journal of Medical Quality

Human Resources Abstracts

Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation

Psychiatric Services

American Journal of Occupational Therapy

Human welfare and technology

Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice

Psychological reports

American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

Hypatia

Journal of Professional Nursing

Psychology Public Policy and Law

American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation

IEEE Transactions on Education

Journal of Psychiatry & Law

Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal

American Journal of Psychiatry

Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy & Society

Journal of Psychology

Public Administration Quarterly

American Journal of Public Health

Infant-Toddler Intervention: The Transdisciplinary Journal

Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied

Public administration review

American Rehabilitation

Information Technology & People

Journal of Public Policy & Marketing

Public Budgeting and Finance

American Review of Public Administration

Intellectual & Developmental Disabilities

Journal of Public Transportation

Public Health Nursing

Annals of Emergency Medicine

International Electronic Journal of Health Education

Journal of rehabilitation

Public health reports

Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science

International Journal of Adolescence and Youth

Journal of rehabilitation administration

Public Interest

Annual Review of Public Health

International Journal of Disability Management Research

Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development

Public Library Quarterly

Apothecary

International Journal of Electronic Commerce

Journal of Retailing

Public Personnel Management

Applied H.R.M.Research

International Journal of Hospitality Management

Journal of School Leadership

Publius

Applied Measurement in Education

International journal of law and psychiatry

Journal of Services Marketing

Qualitative health research

Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene

International Journal of Rehabilitation Research

Journal of Social Service Research

Radiologic technology

Archives of Family Medicine

International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

Journal of Social Work Education

Radiology management

Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Internet and Higher Education

Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation

Reference & User Services Quarterly

Archives of Psychiatric Nursing

Iowa Law Review

Journal of Special Education

Reference Librarian

Arthritis & Rheumatism-Arthritis Care & Research

JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association

Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine

Reference Services Review

ASDC Journal of Dentistry for Children

JOGNN: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing

Journal of Sport Management

Regulation

Assistive Technology : The Official Journal of RESNA

Journal for Vocational Special Needs Education

Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry & the Law

Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin

Basic & Applied Social Psychology

Journal of Academic Librarianship

Journal of the American Deafness and Rehabilitation Association

Rehabilitation Education

Behavioral Sciences and the Law

Journal of Access Services

Journal of the American Planning Association

Rehabilitation Engineering

Berkeley Journal of Employment and Labor Law

Journal of Accounting Education

Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps.

Rehabilitation Nursing Journal

Braille Monitor

Journal of Advanced Transportation

Journal of the Transportation Research Board

Rehabilitation Professional

Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry & the Law

Journal of Air Transport Management

Journal of Transportation Engineering

Rehabilitation Psychology

Bulletin of the Medical Library Association

Journal of Applied Psychology

Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing

Remedial & Special Education

Career Development Quarterly

Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling (JARC)

Journal of Urban Planning & Development

Research & Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities

Career Planning and Adult Development Journal

Journal of Applied Social Psychology

Journal of urban technology

Research in developmental disabilities

Caring

Journal of architectural & planning research

Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness

Review of Disability Studies: An International Journal

Childhood Education

Journal of Architectural and Planning Research

Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation

Review of Litigation

Civil Engineering: the magazine of the American Society of Civil Engineers.

Journal of Athletic Training

Journal of Website Promotion

RQ: published by the American Library Association

Clinical Laboratory Science

Journal of attention disorders

Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health

S.A.M.Advanced Management Journal

Clinical Law Review

Journal of Basic Writing

Journal of Workplace Rights

School Planning & Management

Clinical Research & Regulatory Affairs

Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research

Journal of Youth Services in Libraries

SCI Psychosocial Process

College & Research Libraries

Journal of Burn Care & Rehabilitation

Journals of Gerontology

Science & Society

College & Undergraduate Libraries

Journal of Business & Psychology

Kansas Journal of Law and Public Policy

Signs

Community mental health journal

Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship

Labor law journal

Social Science Quarterly

Community Psychologist

Journal of Business Ethics

Labour Economics

Social work

Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice & Research

Journal of Cancer Survivorship

Landscape and Urban Planning

Social Work in Mental Health

Contemporary Economic Policy

Journal of Career Planning & Employment

Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools

Sociological Quarterly

Cornell Hospitality Quarterly

Journal of Cases in Educational Leadership

Law & Human Behavior

Southern Economic Journal

Criminal Justice Policy Review

Journal of collective negotiations in the public sector

Law & Inequality

Southern medical journal

Cultural diversity & ethnic minority psychology

Journal of College Reading and Learning

Law & Society Review

Spine

CUPA Journal

Journal of Consumer Affairs

Law Library Journal

Stanford Law and Policy Review

Current Opinion in Psychiatry

Journal of Consumer Marketing

LDI issue brief

Syracuse Law Review

Diabetes Educator

Journal of Contemporary Ethnography

Learning Disabilities Research & Practice

Technology and Disability

Diabetes Spectrum

Journal of Counseling & Development

Learning Disability Quarterly

Tennessee Law Review

Disability & Health Journal

Journal of dental education

Library Hi Tech

Texas Journal on Civil Liberties and Civil Rights

Disability & Rehabilitation

Journal of Developmental Education

Loyola Law Review

Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation

Disability & Society

Journal of Disability Policy Studies

Maryland Law Review

Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation

Disability Studies Quarterly

Journal of Economic Issues (Association for Evolutionary Economics)

Medical reference services quarterly

Transportation Quarterly

Disability, Handicap & Society

Journal of Education for Business

Medicine & Law

University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review

Drug and alcohol dependence

Journal of Educational Technology Systems

Mental & Physical Disability Law Reporter

Vanderbilt Law Review

Duke law journal

Journal of Emergency Medicine

Mental and Physical Disability Law Reporter

Villanova Law Review

Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities

Journal of Empirical Legal Studies

Milbank Quarterly

Volta Review

Education Digest

Journal of Geography

Mississippi Law Journal

Women & Therapy

Educational Technology & Society

Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation

Monthly Labor Review

Work and Occupations

Emory Law Journal

Journal of Health & Human Services Administration

National Association of Rehabilitation Professionals in the Private Sector Journal

Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation

Employee Assistance Quarterly

Journal of health & social policy

Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics & Public Policy

 

Employee relations law journal

 

Journal of Health Administration Education

Nursing Education Perspectives

 

 

Return to Table of Contents

Appendix IV: Organizations and organizational websites searched for grey literature

ADA Insights (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)

Heritage Foundation

National Rehabilitation Information Center (NARIC)

American Association of People with Disabilities

Hoover Institution

Office of Disability Employment Policy (Department of Labor)

American Association on Health and Disability

Human Services Research Institute

Open Doors Organization

American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

Institute for Human Centered Design

Rand Corporation

American Bar Association Commission on Disability Rights

Institute on Community Inclusion

Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA)

American Council of the Blind

Job Accommodation Network (JAN)

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

American Enterprise Institute

Kessler Foundation

Society for Human Resource Management

American Society of Civil Engineers' Civil Engineering Database

LexisNexis

State Protection and Advocacy (P&A) Agencies for Persons With Developmental Disabilities, Mental Illness and the Client Assistance Program (CAP)

APSE

LexisNexis Government Periodicals

Tellus Institute

Association of Pool and Spa Professionals

Massachusetts Disability Law Center

The Society for Accessible Travel & Hospitality (SATH)

ATM Marketplace

Mathematica

ThinkBank

Brooking Institute

National Association on Mental Illness

Transportation Research Information Service

Burton Blatt Institute

National Bureau of Economic Research

United Cerebral Palsy Association

Cato Institute

National Business and Disability Council

United States Access Board

Center for American Progress

National Center on Accessibility

Universal Design E-World

Center for the Study and Advancement of Disability Policy

National Council on Disability

US Business Leadership Network

Department of Justice/EEOC

National Federation of Small Business

US Commission on Civil Rights

Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund

National Institute on Mental Health

W.E. Upjohn Institute

Government Accountability Office

National Organization on Disability

World Institute on Disability

 

Return to Table of Contents
 

Appendix V: Codes

*Codes added during the second phase of extraction are marked with an asterisk (*)

DISABILITY STAKEHOLDERS AND SUBGROUPS

A. Business/Employers

B. Education

C. Families/advocates

Large businesses/corporations

*Administrators

Advocates/advocacy groups

Small/medium businesses

*ADA/disability support specialists

Parents

Human resource professionals

Counselors

 

Managers

Disability Support Services and *ADA coordinators

 

Unspecified (in abstract)

Instructors/teachers

 

 

Librarians

 

 

Students

 

 

*Other university employees

 

 

Unspecified (in abstract)

 

 

 

 

 

 

D. Government/Policy Makers

E. Industry Specific

F. People with disabilities/regarded as disabled

Local/state

*Architectural designers

Specific demographic groups

Federal

*Assistive technology inventors/manufacturers

Specific disability subgroups

Unspecified (in abstract)

Attorneys

Specific occupational groups

 

Child care providers

Unspecified (in abstract)

 

*Construction workers

 

 

*Design professionals

 

 

*Farmers/ranchers

 

 

Fire fighting personnel

 

 

Fitness club workers

 

 

Hospitality/tourism professionals

 

 

Law enforcement personnel

 

 

Restaurant owner/operators

 

 

Retailers

 

 

*Sports administrators

 

 

State/public park personnel

 

 

Transportation professionals

 

 

 

 

*G. People without disabilities

 

 

H. Practitioners/Service Providers

 

*Coworkers of people with disabilities

*Administrators

Psychologist/psychiatrists

*Unspecified

Dentists

Rehabilitation Counselors/ Providers

 

Nurses

*Sign language interpreters

 

Occupational therapists

Social service providers

 

Optometrists

Social workers

 

Pharmacists

*Substance abuse workers

 

Physicians

Unspecified

 

TOPICS

 

 

A. Accessibility and compliance (Title II/III)

B. ADA's interaction with other policies

C. Architectural/Engineering Design

Assistive technology/ video relay services

*American Indian legislation

Assistive technology/mobility device design

Athletic facilities

FMLA

Building accessibility

Federal

Health care reform

Communication/Communication devices

Government facilities

*ICIDH

*Door/lock design

Lodging/hospitality/tourism

Other anti-discrimination policies

Ergonomics

Parks/recreation

SSDI

Historic Preservation

Retailers/private business

Vocational Rehab policy

Interior Design

Social service agencies

 

Ramp design

State facilities

 

Routes/Pathways

Unspecified public places

 

Surface/sidewalk  design

 

 

Universal Design

*D. Child Care

E. Criminal Justice System

F. Education

*Accessibility/ compliance

Compliance/accommodations in legal/criminal justice system

Adult education/employment training

*Accommodations

*Crime reporting

*Arts Programming

*Safety/health

Implementation in law enforcement agencies

Colleges/Universities

 

 

Community Colleges

 

 

K-12 Schooling

 

 

Library services

 

 

Seminary schools

 

 

Special schools

 

 

*Testing (any school situation)

G. Emergency preparedness/response

H. Employment

 

*Communication

Accommodations

*One-stop centers

Evacuation

Advancement

Organizational Management

Fire safety

Collective Bargaining

Paid work/open labor market

Policy and planning

Coworker perspectives

*Physical accessibility/compliance

 

Disclosure of disability

Pre-employment screening

 

Discrimination/Harassment

*Professional licensing

 

Employee perspectives

Recruiting

 

*Genetic screening

Retention

 

Hiring

Return to work

 

*Home based work

Supported Employment

 

Implementation of Title I

Technical assistance

 

Insurance coverage/workman's comp

Vocational/Occupational therapy

 

Job function analysis/job descriptions

*Web Compliance

 

Job training

Workplace safety

 

 

 

I. Health/Healthcare

 

J. Housing

Alcohol/ substance abuse treatment

Home healthcare

Community services

Consumer Empowerment

Insurance

Deinstitutionalization

Genetic discrimination

Managed Care

 

Health information

Pharmacies

 

Healthcare Access

Prenatal testing

 

Healthcare facilities/ equipment

Secondary Health Conditions/health status

 

Healthcare providers/practitioner services - general

 

 

K. Media representation

L. Philosophy/history

M. Policy process

News coverage

Definitions of disability

Federal

Public perception

Ethics

General policy processes

 

*History of the legislative process

Municipal/local government

 

Policy discourse

 

N. Self advocacy/empowerment

O. Transportation

P. Voting

Activism

Fixed route transit

Social/legal barriers

Impact on everyday life

Paratransit

 

*Knowledge building

Parking

 

 

Physical barriers

 

 

Public transportation

 

 

Roadways

 

 

Stations/ bus stops

 

 

Transit planning and policies

 

 

 

 

 

METHODS

A. Qualitative

B. Quantitative

C. Mixed Methods

D. Theoretical/ Policy Analysis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Return to Table of Contents

 

Appendix VI: Topic Descriptions

  1. Accessibility and compliance

records related to physical compliance

  1. ADA’s interaction with other policies

records related to how the ADA effects other existing policies and laws

  1. Architectural/engineering design

records related to specific design of buildings and technology

  1. Child care

records related to child care facilities and programs

  1. Criminal Justice system

records related to how the ADA impacts education systems, programs, facilities, students, employees. 

  1. Education

Executive Director, US Business Leadership Network

  1. Emergency preparedness/response:

records related to emergency planning and execution (i.e. safety, communication

  1. Employment

records related to all facets of employment processes, workplaces, training, and broader labor market issues (i.e. rates, attitudes)

  1. Health/Healthcare

records related to the provision of care, services, access and equipment

  1. Housing

records related to deinstitutionalization, community living and services

  1. Media representation:

records related to news coverage and public perception

  1. Philosophy and history

records related the creation of ADA and its theoretical impact

  1. Policy process

records related to how different facets of government implement the ADA.

  1. Self advocacy and empowerment

records related to how people use the ADA to advance their rights

  1. Voting

records related to accessibility and barriers to civic engagement

Return to Table of Contents

[1] The meaning of the term empirical is often debated by researchers from different ontological and academic backgrounds. Positivist researchers tend to classify research as empirical when it can be certified as scientifically  “valid, certain, and accurate” (Crotty, 1998), typically through quantitative and experimental research designs . Other researchers have challenged the positivist notion of empiricism, and more broadly have defended the scientific merit of qualitative data collection and critical/theoretical inquiry (Guba and Lincoln, 1994). This report refers to a broader definition of empirical to encapsulate the wide range of methodological and ontological backing present in ADA research. Empirical research includes evidence generated from the collection and analysis of data from existing scholarly literature and/or interaction with communities or research subjects (See Mertens, 2010).

[2] See: http://www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/finding_studies_systematic_reviews.htm

[3] The Worldcat system is an extensive online database system that is linked to all of the catalogues of libraries worldwide that utilize the Worldshare platform. Worldcat is the most efficient way to search for relevant hard to reach materials (research reports, print materials, and dissertations/theses/student papers) that are not readily available on the internet. While abstracts are seldom available, Worldcat is linked with the interlibrary loan system at the research team’s local library and items can be ordered and their bibliographic information catalogued into the online citation manager.

[4] The National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research library (http://naric.com)

[5] Refworks  is an online citation management system that can automatically generate bibliographic entries from many academic search engines. The Refworks system is used to identify the search source and to save the abstract and general bibliographic information for each research record.

 

 

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